بِسمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحمٰنِ الرَّحيمِ
1. قُلْ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ أَحَدٌ
2. ٱللَّهُ ٱلصَّمَدُ
3. لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ
4. وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُۥ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌۢ
[Surat Al Ikhlas 112:1]: Say1 (O dear Prophet Muhammad – peace and blessings be upon him), “He is ALLAH, He is One2 and the only.”
[Surat Al Ikhlas 112:2]: “Allah is independent3 from every need.” (Perfect, does not require anything.)
[Surat Al Ikhlas 112:3]: “He begot none, nor was he begotten4 from anyone.”
[Surat Al Ikhlas 112:4]: “And there is none equal to Him5.”
This Surah has twenty names, some of which are Ikhlaas, Tanzeehah, Tajreef, Najaat, etc. ( Tafseer Saawi). There are many virtues of this Surah. Reciting it three times gives the person the reward of reciting the entire Qur’an. Any person, on entering his house, should extend greetings. If the house is empty, then he should extend greetings and salutations to the Holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) and recite this Surah once. Due to this, if Allah wills, he will be safeguarded from poverty and hunger ( Tafseer Saawi). The recitation of this Surah is extremely beneficial.
Reason for its Revelation:
The infidels of Arabia had been asking difficult questions to the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) concerning Allah Almighty i.e. is Allah Almighty made of gold or silver? What does He eat and drink? What is His genealogy? In reply to all those questions, this blessed Surah was revealed ( Tafseer Khazainul Irfaan).
[Surah Ikhlas 1] (1): To whom must it be said? Either to Us(ALLAH), as praise is Ours and praising is your life; that We are the object of praise and you are the one who praises. You say and We will listen. Or, say to the infidels that they should accept Our Oneness through your blessed tongue. Or, say to the believers. Or, say to all mankind or to the entire creation, because you are the Prophet unto the entire creation.
[Surah Ikhlas 1] (2): As Almighty ALLAH does not have any parts, partners or his equals. There were different types of infidels – Atheists, polytheists, those who worshipped the creation, rejected the attributes of Allah Almighty, those who believed that Allah Almighty had wife or children, etc. This chapter is a refutation to all of them. The part of the verse, “He is ALLAH” is refutation to atheists. “He is One” is refutation to all polytheists.
[Surah Ikhlas 2] (3): He is independent of everything: He does not eat, nor drink, nor is He dependent on anyone for anything. In this verse, there is a refutation for those people who were advocating that just one Allah cannot take care of such a huge universe; He has enlisted help from some of His servants. By accepting them as His servants, they were calling them ”Ilah”(deity ) or ”shuraka”(partners) and were worshipping. For their refutation it has been said: ”And none is a supporter of Him because of weakness’ (Chapter 17). In Islam, the saints of Allah and the angels are maintaining the order of the world, but not due to the weakness of Allah Almighty, but in an honorary capacity, to reflect and reveal the grandeur of Almighty Allah.
[Surah Ikhlas 3] (4): Children are from the genus of the father, but Almighty Allah is free and pure from genus and resemblance. Also, anyone who is born from someone is a creation, not God. Almighty ALLAH is from eternity to eternity. The need for children is for the perpetuation of a breed and is in need of it. The One Who is eternal does not need children. In it is the refutation of the polytheists, the Jews, and the Christians. The polytheists believe in the angels as the daughters of Allah. The Jews had believed in Hazrat Uzair and the Christians had believed in Hazrat Isa as the sons of Almighty Allah.
[Surah Ikhlas 3] (5): Neither in the Personality nor in His Attributes, because He is Self-existent and the Creator, while everything else is his creation. His Attributes are personal, eternal and limitless. On the other hand, the attributes of the creation are bestowed, are created and are limited. With this rule, we learn that to accept the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) as Knower of the Unseen and Omnipresent is not polytheism because in it there is no equality with Almighty Allah. This is like accepting a man as SAMEE (one who can hear); BASEER (one who can see); HAYY (one who is alive) and QADIR (one who has power).
It should be remembered that this chapter is regarding Oneness of Allah Almighty and His Praise, but by stating ”say” it has provided the beautiful reflection of Prophet’s praise. In it, there is a hint towards the fact that the believer is he who believes in all these Attributes of Almighty Allah through your teachings. By leaving you out and accepting everything else, there is no faith. Observe, Shaitaan is a monotheist but he is accursed because he rejected prophethood of Hazrat Adam (peace be upon him) when Almighty ALLAH instructed all angels to prostrate the Prophet
Bismillaahir Rah’maanir Rah’eem
ALLAH ke naam se shuru jo nihayat meharban, Rahem wala hai.
Surah Ikhlas Makkiya baQawle Madaniya hai. Isme ek ruku, 4 ya 5 aayatein hain, 15 kalime, 47 harf hain. Ahadith mein is surat ki bohat fazeelatein warid huwi hain. Isko tihayi Quran ke barabar farmaya gaya yani teen martaba isko padha jaaye toh poore Quran ki tilawat ka sawab mile. Ek shaks ne sayyid e aalam (sallallahu a’laihi wa sallam) se arz kiya keh muje is surat se bohat mohabbat hai, farmaya iski mohabbat tujhe jannat mein dakhil karegi. (Tirmidhi Shareef).
Shan e Nuzool: Kuffar e Arab ne sayyid e aalam (sallallahu a’laihi wa sallam) se ALLAH Rabbul i’zzat A’zzawajal tabarak wa ta’ala ke mutalliq tarah tarah ke suwal kiye. Koi kehta tha keh ALLAH ka nasab kya hai? Koi kehta tha woh sone ka hai ya chandi ka hai ya lohe ka hai ya lakdi ka hai, kis cheez ka hai? Kisi ne kaha woh kya khata hai, kya peeta hai? Rabuwwiyat usne kisse wursa mein paayi aur uska kaun waaris hoga? Inke jawab mein ALLAH ta’ala ne yeh surat nazil farmayi. Aur apne zaat wa sifaat ka bayan farmakar marifat ki raah wazeh ki aur jahilana khayalat wa wahem ki tarikiyon ko jinme woh log giraftar the apne zaat wa sifaat ke anwar ke bayan se muzmahal kardiya. Rubuwwiyat aur uloohiyat mein sifat e A’zmat wa kamal ke saath mausoof hai. Misl wa nazeer wa shabiya se paak hai aur iska koi shareek nahi.
Har cheez se be niyaz hai. Woh na khaye na peeye. Hamesha se hai, hamesha rahe. Na uski aulad hai na woh kisi se paida huwa kyukeh jo paida hota hai woh haadis hota hai. Aur ALLAH ta’ala ki zaat qadeem hai. Koi iske barabar nahi.
The love of this surah is a means of entering paradise. It is a means of eradicating poverty, increasing sustenance, seeking forgiveness of sins, protecting one’s faith and increasing the number of angels at the time of death. It is beneficial in healing sickness, maintaining good health and in fulfillment of needs and desires.
Sources: The Holy Quran, Translation from Imam Ahmed Raza Khan, Shah Fareedul Haq, Mohammad Akbar Hazarwi, Naeemuddin Muradabadi, Mufti Ahmed Yaar Khan.